We like to think about slavery as a thing of a past, at least that’s what our school books often teach us, but the reality is that there are just as many people enslaved around the world today as in any point in history. Just how many? Estimates put it at over 27 million worldwide. Much of this slavery revolves around the sex trade, but what doesn’t is often centered on agricultural production. While much attention has been given to foods lately to ensure that they are green and sustainable, few consider the human costs of what they eat. Whether you’re trying to be a more responsible consumer or want to learn about the issues that could inspire you to earn criminal justice degree,these facts will show you that some of the everyday foods you buy and consume may be supporting systems that enslave people around the world and perhaps right in your own backyard.
- Tomatoes: The delicious tomatoes you put on your sandwiches and in your spaghetti are very likely picked and packed in conditions that are unacceptable to anyone with even half a heart. During the winter and spring months, as much as 90% of the tomatoes we eat come from south Florida. These tomatoes are picked by an immigrant workforce, who are paid little if at all and live well below the poverty line. They are kept indentured to their bosses by a system that charges them for even the most basic of daily necessities and many are threatened with death or abuse if they try to leave. There are no days off, the work is hard and backbreaking and many have nowhere to go even if they do leave. Sound hard to believe? There have been numerous court cases and arrests made with stories just like this, and many more who get away with it because their victims are too scared to speak.
- Chocolate: Consumers should research the kind of chocolate they buy very carefully as there’s a good chance that even some of the major brands found in supermarkets use chocolate that was the product of a system of slavery. We don’t often associate chocolate with bad things or bad experiences, but others around the world sure might. In places where chocolate grows well, like the Ivory Coast, children and young adults are often tricked or kidnapped into slavery. Children on these farms work 80-100 hours a week, endure beatings and are given little to no food in return, even at one of the largest cocoa producers in the world. This slavery harvested cocoa makes its way into 43% of the world’s chocolate and is in products from big names like Hershey and Nestle as well. Chocolate lovers don’t necessarily need to give up their sweet treat to avoid supporting slavery, just look for packages that are marked as being fair trade.
- Soybeans: If the soybeans and soy products you eat are coming out of Brazil you might just be consuming legumes harvested by those without a choice of whether or not they want to do so. While slavery was abolished in Brazil in 1888, some estimate that over 50,000 people in the country may be working under slavery-like conditions. Foods like soybeans are grown in fields that are cleared out of rainforests, often by those who have little means to escape from their captors, work at gunpoint and are given little food or medical care. Additionally, consumers should watch out for Brazilian processed meats as these can be packaged and slaughtered in horrible conditions by enslaved workers as well. Authorities in Brazil are working to counter the problems of slavery in the country, but it’s often difficult to find the offenders within millions of miles of rainforest and there are few repercussions for those working so far out of the public’s sphere of interest and the reach of the law.
- Oranges: That orange might put a sour taste in your mouth when you learn a little bit more about how it got from the farm to your table. Over the past 20 years, over 1,000 slaves and indentured workers have been freed through court-action in Florida. What were they harvesting? The very oranges and tomatoes you buy in the supermarket every day. In one case, workers were recruited from homeless shelters through promises of a good wage then forced into labor harvesting oranges. They were kept indentured through "company store" debt and those who tried to leave were kidnapped and beaten into submission. It sounds like something out of the 1800′s but it’s still happening right here in the United States every day to workers who have little legal recourse.
- Sugar: Since it was brought to the New World along with Columbus, sugar cane has been a product that has been associated with slave labor as it is notoriously hard to plant, harvest and process. Unfortunately, little has changed today and slaves produce sugar on plantations around the world. In Pakistan, 7,500 bonded laborers on cane fields have been freed since 1995. Yet this is only a fraction of the 50,000 more that are estimated to still be working in the fields of the Singh region. In Brazil, more than 1,000 workers were freed from a sugar cane plantation in 2007, the largest anti-slavery raid in modern times. These countries aren’t alone, with numerous places in Africa, the Caribbean and Central America putting people to work in sugar fields against their will. Make sure your sugar truly is sweet by finding out where it’s from and whether or not it’s fair trade.
- Coffee: If you aren’t aware of problems with slavery and coffee production you might have been living under a rock. Coffee is a product that is notorious for its association with slavery, something that’s responsible for the growth of fair trade and ethically produced varieties in grocery stores around the world. If you don’t know where your coffee is coming from, there’s a good chance it’s been planted and picked by a slave laborer, and an even better chance that that laborer is a child. In places like the Cote d’Ivoire, children wake at the crack of dawn to work in the field, are starved, beaten and even killed if they don’t work long or hard enough. If that doesn’t wake you up, no amount of coffee will.
- Strawberries: Strawberries are tiny and hard to pick, so it’s hard to find workers who are willing to work in the fields for the low wages farm owners want to pay. As a consequence, many strawberry fields become sites of slavery, exploiting the migrant workers who do the difficult but extremely profitable (for the owners) job of harvesting the berries. During the strawberry season you might enjoy the sweet, summery fruits, but for those who work in the fields it’s a season of backbreaking labor, cruelty and often starvation. Problems with strawberry harvests occur around the world, and slaves have been found in the United States, Germany, Poland, and even Japan.Those strawberries don’t taste nearly as good as not being responsible for the suffering of others, so pay close attention to where you’re getting your berries.
- Poultry: Few of us would want to work in a plant processing poultry as it’s a dirty and often disgusting job, however much we love our chicken nuggets. Because it’s such hard and unforgiving work, the jobs often go to undocumented and unprotected immigrant workers. There is little government oversight so workers often put in long hours, get little pay, receive no medical care and are mistreated and abused. Some who do speak out simply disappear. Think the poor conditions of poultry processing are an exaggeration? In a case in Iowa, a Texas-based turkey company was found to be paying mentally handicapped workers a mere 44 cents an hour for their work, and housed them in an ancient and unsafe bunkhouse. This went on for over 30 years with no interruption or government intervention, and might make you think hard before you buy any poultry.
- Tea: Much like coffee, the tea industry has seen a lot of slavery over the years, and with tea being the most popular beverage in the world, the demand is there and the profits from growing and selling tea on the back of enslaved laborers are high. Again, much like coffee, a good deal of this hard labor is done by children who are sold into slavery by their parents and work long, backbreaking hours in the fields picking tea leaves. Make sure to look carefully at the teas you buy to ensure that they are not produced under these conditions. If it doesn’t say, don’t buy it.
- Seafood: Sustainability isn’t the only thing you have to worry about when it comes to buying seafood. The fishing industry in places like Southeast Asia and Africa is riddled with trafficked children, forced to work for little or no pay at jobs that are hard even for adult workers. In Thailand, the industry is largely supported by slave labor from migrant workers, children and those who have been smuggled into the country. If you think it seems farfetched that fish from such far flung destinations would make it to your plate in the U.S., do a little research. As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, food from Asia or Africa could easily end up in a U.S. processing plant. So, think before you eat and by locally sourced and ethically produced seafood when you can.
Criminal justice jobs are in constant fluctuation because laws and court battles are revised nearly every week. While most criminals are acutely aware that they are breaking the law when they commit a felony, some laws are more recent than others (such as registering as a sex offender immediately after you move states), which can produce a warrant unbeknownst to the “criminal”. Using this type of new law as an example, it is obvious that criminal justice is one area which is able to constantly produce jobs, even throughout a recession, and will be in no danger of shutting down in the next few years.
The industry as a whole encompasses many different steps that are all related to criminal actions and the justice system. Law enforcement and the judicial system work hand in hand to guarantee that every guilty criminal is prosecuted to their fullest extent and every person who is innocent is allowed the chance to prove their innocence before a court. New laws that are implemented with every legislative session call for new court decisions and new law enforcement positions, which in turn creates higher salaries for current law enforcement officers who have to learn new tactics, as well as new positions within both law enforcement and the judicial system.
Every new law yields changes within the criminal justice system, both throughout the state and federal systems, a concept that most people do not comprehend. Criminals can commit a wide variety of felonies, but the way our government is set up, both law enforcement and the judicial system will determine whether the criminals are tried in a federal or state court (according to the nature of the offense). When new laws are enacted, sometimes these two jurisdictions have to work together to administer justice, entailing the current courts to learn new parts of law and jurisdictional requirements.
The criminal justice system helps ensure that we all have a safe life, free of crime on our streets. Even the smaller careers within the criminal justice system are important in securing our well-being. In a time of such economic uncertainty, criminal justice careers remain one of the most stable industries to enter into, despite the changes which are constantly made to each position. Criminals are an ever-present force in society, despite our best efforts to stop them, and only with the help of law enforcement officers and the judicial system will we be able to keep our communities safe and continue to live in this type of society.